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November

November 1

1696 – Iberville began a march across the Avalon Peninsula to take St. John’s (see May 19).
1788 – Bishop Inglis opened an academy at Windsor, Nova Scotia, which later became King’s College.
1813 – American General Wilkinson began a move down the St. Lawrence from Lake Ontario to attack Montreal.
1838 – Lord Durham sailed for London after resigning as governor.
1847 – A Normal School was opened in Toronto. T. J. Robertson was headmaster.
1850 – Joseph Howe sailed for London to try to raise money to build a railway.
1893 – A statue of Sir John A. Macdonald was unveiled at Hamilton, Ontario.
1895 – The Independence of Canada Club adopted a platform.
1915 – The Government launched the first Victory Loan Campaign.
1945 – The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization held a conference at Quebec with twenty nations represented.
1950 – Restrictions on consumer credit were put into effect.
1955 – The Honourable L. B. Pearson, then Minister of External Affairs, opened the “Canada Dam” at West Bengal, India.
1970 – The province of Quebec brought in a universal health insurance plan.
1971 – On this day, Douglas Creighton started publishing “The Toronto Sun”, along with some other unemployed Telegram staffers. The first issue boasted 48 pages!
1987 – Former Premier of Quebec (1976 – 1985) and leader of the separatist Parti Quebecois René Levesque died in Montreal, Quebec. He was born in 1922.
1992 – Canadian physicist from Ottawa, Ontario, Steve McLean landed safely at the Kennedy Space Centre. He had spent 10 days on board the shuttle Columbia (dubbed the STS-52 mission). Part of his other accomplishments are that he tested the Canadarm, did some space station construction jobs, as well as Canada’s Advanced Space Vision System. Very cool!
1992 – In Montreal, Quebec, St-Cyrille Boulevard is renamed René Levesque.
1995 – C.P. Rail began its commuter service between Vancouver and Mission, in British Columbia.

November 2

1796 – Six Nations Indians authorized Chief Brant to sell their land.
1809 – King George III made a gift of a communion plate to the Metropolitan Church Cathedral at Quebec.
1833 – W. L. Mackenzie was expelled from the Upper Canada legislature for the third time.
1869 – Louis Riel entered For Garry to take charge.
1885 – The first passenger train for Winnipeg left Montreal.
1911 – The citizens of Montreal contributed $1.5 million to McGill University.
1947 – Food rationing was ended in Canada.
1960 – Canada’s first national theatre school was opened in Montreal (National Theatre School of Canada (NTS)).

November 3

1667 – The Treaty of Westminster restored Acadia to France although the actual transfer did not take place until the Treaty of Breda in 1670.
1894 – The first issue of Le Temps, Ottawa, was published.
1957 – One of the most advanced atomic energy reactors in the world opened at Chalk River, Ontario.

November 4

1775 – The Halifax garrison was reduced to 390 men. George Washington missed a chance to capture the Maritimes.
1797 – Robert Shore Milnes Bouchette (1746-1837) was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Lower Canada on this day. He was also administrator of Lower Canada from July 30, 1799, to November 29, 1808.
1809 – The steamer Accommodation, the first on the St. Lawrence, carrying John Molson as a passenger, arrived at Quebec from Montreal. The trip took 66 hours at a speed of five knots but 30 hours was spent at anchor. The fare was $8.
1834 – William Lyon Mackenzie (1795-1861) published the last issue of ‘The Colonial Advocate’
1838 – Cyrille Côté, and a hundred Patriots from Châteauguay (under the command of Cardinal et Duquet), attacked Caughnawaga. They were looking for arms. The darn thing is that they attacked while the Mohawks were attending church! Later, the Iroquois counter attacked — they beat back rebels, and took Cardinal and Duquet prisoner.
1838 – Sir Francis Hincks founded the Toronto Examiner.
1873 – In Winnipeg, Manitoba, Ambroise-Dydime Lépine (1834-1923) was sentenced to death for his role in the execution of Thomas Scott. However, the sentence was commuted and he served only two years in jail.
1873 – The famous clash between Sir John A. Macdonald and Donald A. Smith took place in the House of Commons.
1879 – The Supreme Court ruled that only the Queen or the Governor-General can appoint Queen’s Counsels.
1899 – Large deposits of coal were discovered in Nova Scotia.
1920 – Marconi’s Canadian radio station XWA, started in December 1919, is licensed as CFCF Montreal. It broadcasted the first commercial radio show; Arguably the oldest in the world.
1936 – Birth of the Société Radio-Canada (the French counterpart of the CBC).
1952 – Canada advised the United States of its intention to build the St. Lawrence Seaway.
1953 – Société Radio-Canada started broadcasting “La Famille Plouffe”, Quebec’s first téléroman.
1956 – Secretary of State for External Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, (1897-1972) proposed a UN police force for Suez — to separate Egypt from the invading British, French, and Israelis. The United Nations implemented his international emergency force scheme — it became the model for all UN peacekeeping actions thereafter.
1959 – The National Research Council signed an agreement with Soviet Academy of Science for the exchange of scientists.
1959 – The province of Alberta banned trading stamps and similar promotion schemes.
1959 – Paul Anka, born in Ottawa, has a number one hit with “Put Your Head on My Shoulder”.
1960 – A fifteen-year program for the rehabilitation of inmates in federal prisons was announced by Justice Minister Fulton.
1970 – The new St. Lawrence River bridge, upstream from Quebec, is renamed the Pont Pierre-Laporte, to honour Le Devoir correspondent Pierre Laporte (1921-1970), who was kidnapped and killed by FLQ terrorists.
1978 – Springhill, Nova Scotia-born Anne Murray’s ‘You Needed Me’ becomes #1 on the charts.
1982 – Ontario Supreme Court ordered the extradition of Albert Helmut Rauca, a Canadian citizen, to West Germany. He was charged in connection with the murder of over 11,000 Lithuanian Jews in WW II. This was the first extradition of a Canadian accused of war crimes.
1985 – The Canadian Red Cross started testing donated blood for HIV, which leads to AIDS. Unfortunately, because some tainted blood was already in the system, it is estimated that thousands of Canadians will contract HIV and Hepatitis.
1990 – Prime Minister Brian Mulroney offers an apology to the Canadians of Italian origin who were forced to live in internment camps during World War II. He had made an earlier apology to Japanese Canadians.
1992 – Goaltender Manon Rhéaume from Trois-Rivières became the first woman to sign a professional hockey contract!
1992 – Inventor George Klein died at the age of 88. He worked for the National Research Council for over 40 years. Best known for leading the team that designed the first nuclear reactor, gear design of Canadarm.
1993 – Jean Chrétien becomes Canada’s 20th Prime Minister. Part of his new Cabinet are six women: Ethel Blondin-Andrew,
Sheila Copps, Sheila Finestone, Anne McLellan, Diane Marleau, and Christine Stewart.
1996 – Thirty (30) out of forty-five (45) Quebec CÉGEP’s go on strike.

November 5

1653 – A peace treaty between the French and the Iroquois was signed at Quebec.
1814 – American forces destroyed their own base at Fort Erie, Ontario.
1889 – The Province of Quebec paid the Jesuits $400,000 and the Protestant Board of Education $80,000 under the Jesuit Estate Act.
1917 – The use of grain was prohibited in the manufacture of liquor during the war.
1956 – Major-General E.L.M. Burns of Canada was made commander of the United Nations International Force.
1963 – Seafarers International Union leader Hal Banks was charged with conspiracy.

November 6

1662 – Pierre Boucher returned from France with 100 soldiers and 300 colonists.
1662 – The French also settle Placentia, Newfoundland.
1867 – The first session of Canada’s First Parliament opened. Members received $6 per day.

November 7

1816 – A police constable and twelve men tried to arrest Lord Selkirk at Fort William but Selkirk arrested the constable!
1850 – The Upper Canada School of Medicine was affiliated with the University of Toronto.
1873 – The first session of government under Alexander Mackenzie began after the defeat of the Macdonald government owing to C.P.R. bribery charges.
1900 – The Liberals under Sir Wilfrid Laurier were sustained in general election, which led to the retirement of Sir Charles Tupper as Conservative leader. Sir Robert Borden succeeded him.
1950 – The first contingent of Canadian troops for the Korean war landed at Pusan.

November 8

1603 – Pierre Du Gua, Sieur de Monts, received a royal commission to colonize L’Acadie (Acadia).
1631 – Cape Breton was given to Sir Robert Gordon to form the province of New Galloway.
1832 – Robert Campbell left on an expedition to buy sheep in Kentucky (see September 6).
1861 – Captain Wilkes took Confederates from the British ship Trent and nearly caused a war in which Canada would have been attacked (see May 20).
1873 – Winnipeg was incorporated as a city.
1919 – Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden left for a peace conference in Paris.
1902 – A railway was completed between Calgary and Edmonton. It was the first railway to reach Edmonton.
1951 – Broad Disarmament proposals, which the United States offered to Russia on November 7, were formally presented to the United Nations General Assembly by Secretary of State Dean Acheson.
1965 – The Liberal Government was re-elected as a minority government in a general election. The Liberals won 131 seats, Conservatives 97, New Democratic Party (N.D.P.) 21, Creditistes 9, Social Credit 5, others 2.

November 9

1613 – An expedition from Virginia, under Captain Argall left Port Royal, Nova Scotia, after destroying French settlements.
1864 – The first shipment of lumber from British Columbia to Australia marked the beginning of a big export trade.
1872 – An Order-in-Council authorized the building of the Intercolonial Railway between Montreal and Halifax.
1928 – The Imperial Privy Council ruled that gold and silver in land still held by the Hudson’s Bay Company (seven million acres) belonged to the Dominion government and not to the company.
1942 – Canada broke off diplomatic relations with Vichy France.
1943 – Canada signed the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agreement known as UNRRA.

November 10

1678 – Quebec Council allowed the sale of liquor to Indians to check the increasing flow of furs to English traders.
1696 – An English settlement at Ferryland, Newfoundland, was destroyed by Iberville.
1727 – France excluded all foreign commerce from French colonies.
1852 – Hugh and Andrew Allan established the Montreal Ocean Steamship Company for service between Canada and Britain.
1852 – Parliament as dissolved at Quebec owing to an outbreak of cholera.
1853 – The Great Western Railway was opened from Niagara Suspension Bridge to Hamilton, a distance of 43 miles. It reached London on December 31.
1856 – A telegraph line was opened between Newfoundland and New York.
1898 – A Joint High Commission meeting at Washington failed to settle the Alaska Boundary.
1916 – Prices were controlled by Order-in-Council.
1925 – A wheat yield of 423 million bushels was the largest in history up to this date.
1960 – The deepest oil or gas well in Canada was completed at Fording Mountain, British Columbia.

November 11

1813 – Americans were defeated at Chrysler’s Farm.
1872 – A railway was completed between Halifax and Saint John, New Brunswick.
1916 – The Duke of Devonshire became Governor-General of Canada.
1916 – Sir Sam Hughes resigned as Minister of Militia (see February 14).
1918 – Signing of Armistice ends World War I.

November 12

1774 – British citizens in Quebec protested the Quebec Act which restored French civil law.
1820 – The Presbyterian of Quebec and Montreal petitioned for a share of the clergy reserves.
1856 – The Grand Trunk Railway was opened from Quebec (Quebec) to Toronto (Ontario).
1921 – Sir Robert Borden, even though resigned as Prime Minister since July 1920, represented Canada at a conference in Washington to limit armaments.
1962 – Montreal was approved as the site for the World’s fair in 1967, by the International Exhibition Bureau. It became Expo ’67.

November 13

1637 – Newfoundland was granted to Sir David Kirke.
1689 – The Iroquois massacred the settlement at La Chesnaye, 20 miles down the river from Montreal.
1705 – Negro slaves were declared to be “moveable property.”
1775 – American troops under General Montgomery occupied Montreal.
1849 – The capital of Canada was shifted to Toronto owing to riots in Montreal.
1929 – There was a second sharp stock market crash (see October 29).
1953 – The American President and Mrs. Eisenhower visited Ottawa.
1956 – Prime Minister St. Laurent announced the creation of the Canada Council.

November 14

1684 – Bishop Laval sailed for France to resign.
1775 – Benedict Arnold tried to force Quebec to surrender.
1954 – French Premier Pierre Mendès-France visited Quebec and Ottawa.
1955– A four-month strike ended at the De Havilland Aircraft plant, Toronto.
1957 – Prime Minister Diefenbaker announced a $125 million power development for the Maritimes.
1962 – Sioux Rock, depicting Indian legends, was found at Port Arthur, Ontario.

November 15

1765 – An ordinance admitted French-speaking jurors to courts and permitted lawyers to plead in French.
1877 – The Northwest Council passed laws to conserve the buffalo.
1948 – W. L. Mackenzie King resigned as prime minister and was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent (see April 21).

November 16

1686 – Britain and France signed the Treaty of Neutrality governing possessions in North America in the even of war in Europe.
1837 – Warrants were issued for the arrest of Papineau and other rebellion leaders.
1869 – A convention of Métis at Red River formed a provisional government with Louis Riel playing the leading role.
1885 – Louis Riel was hanged after the Northwest Rebellion.
1950 – Canadian troops for the Korean War arrived at Fort Lewis, Washington, for training.

November 17

1623 – A road to Upper Town was completed at Quebec.
1815 – The Chippewa Indians ceded 250,000 acres, now part of Simcoe County, Ontario.
1856 – The Grand Trunk Railway was completed between Guelph and Stratford, Ontario.
1874 – The Carnarvon terms were announced for settling a dispute between British Columbia and the Federal Government.
1896 – Sir Clifford Sifton was made Minister of the Department of the Interior (see November 27).
1903 – The Northwest Mounted Police occupied Herschel Island and raised the British flag.
1903 – Silver was discovered at Cobalt, Ontario (see July 11).
1959 – The Soviet bloc in the United Nations agreed to the Canadian proposal to study the effect of radiation from atomic explosions.
1960 – The Honourable Lester B. Pearson was presented with the Medallion of Valour of the State of Israel for his “outstanding role in the deliberations of the United Nations which led to the judicious consideration of the differences between the State of Israel and the Arab nations.”

November 18

1678 – La Salle sent a party which included La Motte and Father Hennepin to Niagara.
1791 – The Constitutional Act, which divided Canada into Upper and Lower Canada, was proclaimed. It was to come into effect on December 26.
1883 – Standard Time was adopted in Canada. It was the invention of Sandford Fleming. The rest of the world adopted his system in 1884 at an international conference in Washington.
1929 – A tidal wave struck south-west Newfoundland, killed twenty-seven people, and caused $1 million damage.
1936 – The Toronto Globe bought the Mail and Empire and formed the present Globe and Mail.

November 19

1775 – Governor Carleton arrived at Quebec after eluding the Americans (see November 8).
1858 – On this day, the mainland was made a separate colony. James Douglas, who was already Governor of Vancouver Island, was sworn in as Governor of British Columbia at a ceremony at Fort Langley, which was intended to be the capital.
1866 – This day was also chosen as the date when the colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island would be united. Historian Dr. Margaret Ormsby believes the choice of November 19 was sentimental rather than coincidental.
1867 – The British Government turned down a request that British Columbia be allowed to join Confederation.
1869 – The body of Joseph Guilbord was buried in Montreal under police protection. There had been riots in Montreal because he had criticized Roman Catholic clergy for banning certain books. Many Roman Catholics felt he should not be buried in consecrated ground.
1918 – An Order-in-Council united government railways. This led to the creation of Canadian National Railways.

November 20

1834 – The Constitutional Society of Montreal drew up a list of ninety-two grievances which was sent to King William IV.
1877 – Edmonton, Alberta, obtained its first telegraph service.
1880 – The Federal Government and the C.P.R. signed the final agreement.
1893 – The American Supreme Court held that the Great Lakes and connecting waters constituted “high seas.” This led to a treaty in 1909, guaranteeing that the lakes would be open to citizens of Canada and the States on an equal basis.
1946 – It might be said that Alberta’s oil boom began on this date when the famous Leduc well was spudded in. It began producing on February 13, the following year. As early as June, 1892, however, the Edmonton Bulletin had reported indications of oil at St. Albert.
1962 – The United Nations approved the Canadian plan to measure worldwide atomic radiation.

November 21

1763 – Benjamin Franklin established post offices at Montreal, Trois Rivières, and Quebec.
1817 – St. John’s, Newfoundland, was badly damaged by fire.
1829 – Egerton Ryerson published the first issue of the Christian Guardian supporting Methodist interests in religion and politics.
1856 – The Grand Trunk Railway was completed from St. Mary’s to Sarnia, Ontario.
1890 – The Indians of Ontario and Quebec petitioned to be able to elect their own chiefs as formerly, though still subject to the Queen.
1942 – The Alaska Highway was opened.
1950 – A collision between a troop train and the C.N. Transcontinental at Canoe Lake, British Columbia, killed twenty-one, and injured fifty-three.
1954 – H.M.C.S. Labrador completed an 18,000 mile trip around the continent via the Northwest Passage and the Panama Canal.

November 22

1612 – Louis XIII granted the region from Florida to the St. Lawrence River to the Marchioness de Guercheville for Jesuit missions.
1784 – Parrtown was made the capital of New Brunswick. The name was changed to Saint John the following year, and the capital was moved to Fredericton in 1786.
1806 – The first issue of the Canadien appeared. This was the first French-language newspaper in Canada.
1852 – A submarine cable was laid from Carleton Head, Prince Edward Island, to Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick. It was the first in North America.
1915 – Canada issued a War Loan of $50 million.
1957 – The first ship passed through the Iroquois Lock, St. Lawrence Seaway.

November 23

1815 – Street lights used in Montreal for the first time.
1823 – John Caldwell, Receiver-General of Lower Canada, was suspended from office for being £ 96,000 in arrears (see November 29).
1877 – Canada was awarded $5.5 million from the United States for fishing rights and free navigation of the St. Lawrence (see February 27).

November 24

1648 – Marguerite Bourgeoys opened a school for French and Indian children at Ville Marie (Montreal).
1784 – A mail route was established between Montreal and Quebec. Fredericton, New Brunswick, was established by Loyalists.
1807 – Joseph Brant, Chief of Six Nations Indians, died (see September 25).
1817 – An award under the Treaty of Ghent gave the islands in Passamaquoddy Bay to Britain, except for Moose, Dudley and Frederick which became American. Grand Manan was included in the British award.
1845 – Governor Metcalfe appointed a commission to determine losses suffered during the Upper and Lower Canada Rebellions.
1852 – The Normal School of Ontario was opened.
1888 – William O’Connor of Toronto won the American rowing championship at Washington.
1890 – The Cape Breton Railway was opened as part of the Intercolonial Railway.
1896 – The Bering Sea Commission met at Victoria, British Columbia.
1905 – Edmonton, Alberta, obtained its first direct Transcontinental railway service when the Canadian Northern Railway was completed.
1956 – The first Canadian contingent in the United Nations force arrived in Egypt.

November 25

1758 – General John Forbes captured Fort Duquesne and named it Fort Pitt, now Pittsburg. This marked the end of French rule in the Ohio Valley.
1783 – Sir Guy Carleton sailed from New York. Britain restrained Detroit and Niagara as hostages to see that the peace terms were carried out.
1837 – William Lyon Mackenzie proclaimed the creation of a provisional government. This led to an armed clash in which he was defeated.
1847 – A railway was opened between Montreal and Lachine, Quebec.
1851 – The Y.M.C.A. was organized at Montreal.
1857 – Prime Minister Sir Étienne Taché resigned.
1878 – Governor-General the Marquis of Lorne and his wife, Princess Louise, arrived at Halifax.
1885 – Rocky Mountain Park was established at Banff, Alberta.
1892 – Sir John Thompson became prime minister, succeeding Sir John Abbott who had resigned.
1919 – Edward Prince of Wales sailed from Halifax after a visit to Canada which had begun on August 12.

November 26

1843 – The Lafontaine-Baldwin government resigned in a dispute with Governor Metcalfe (see March 29).
1857 – The Macdonald-Cartier government was in power until July, 1858.
1892 – The Canadian Privy Council denied the right of Roman Catholics in Manitoba to appeal to the Governor-General in the separate schools question.
1926 – Vincent Massey was made the first Canadian minister to the United States.

November 27

1618 – Marc Lescarbot was given permission to publish his History of New France (see May 11).
1783 – The shipping service was restore between Halifax and New York.
1822 – John McLeod of the Hudson’s Bay Company began his journey through the Rockies and descended the Fraser River to the Strait of Georgia.
1829 – The final section of the Welland Canal was opened.
1854 – The Grand Trunk Railway was completed from Richmond to Lévis, Quebec.
1885 – Eight Indians were hanged at Regina for murders in the Northwest Rebellion.

November 28

1698 – Count Frontenac dies at Quebec.
1797 – The Northwest Company began building the Sault Ste. Marie Canal which was destroyed by Americans in 1812.
1822 – The Mississauga Indians ceded 2,748,000 acres, now parts of Hastings, Addington, Frontenac, Lanark, Carleton, and Renfrew counties, in Ontario.
1844 – Parliament opened the session in Montreal that removed restrictions on the use of French.
1871 – The Canada Post Office issued the first postcards.
1871 – A telegraph service opened between Winnipeg and Pembina, Manitoba.
1907 – Dial telephones, believed to be the first in Canada, came into use in Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia. Edmonton, Alberta, received dial phones on April 5, 1908.
1950 – Canada granted one million dollars and free passage to victims of the revolution in Hungary.

November 29

1729 – French settlers at Fort Rosalie (Natchez, U.S.A.) were massacred.
1745 – A French and Indian force under Marin captured Saratoga.
1760 – The French garrison at Detroit surrendered to the British. This final defeat led to Pontiac’s attempt to wrest control from the new British rulers.
1773 – British citizens at Quebec petitioned for an Assembly.
1798 – The Provincial Legislature of the Island of St. John changed the name to Prince Edward Island. The change received royal assent in 1799.
1855 – The Grand Trunk Railway completed the line from Montreal to Brockville.
1918 – The Canadian Council of Agriculture, meeting at Winnipeg, declared a national farmers’ platform including reduced tariffs, free trade with Britain, and reciprocity with the United States.
1962 – Public Works Minister Fulton resigned to become leader of the Conservatives in British Columbia.

November 30

1629 – Charles La Tour was captured by the Kirke brothers and sent to England where King Charles I made him a Baronet of Nova Scotia.
1696 – St. John’s, Newfoundland, surrendered to Iberville.
1782 – Britain and the United States agreed to peace terms.
1829 – Construction of Welland Canal completed.
1852 – Robert Campbell left Fort Simpson to snowshoe 3,000 miles to get married.
1960 – One hundred and ten Canadian trade commissioners met at Ottawa for a 15-day conference.
1962 – Citizens of Cornwall, Ontario, were treated for chlorine gas poisoning.

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