Pic of calendar for the month of JulyJuly 1 – Happy Birthday, Canada!

1686 – Iberville took Fort Rupert, Hudson Bay.

1858 – Bishop John Strachan laid the foundation stone of Toronto’s St Stephen-in-the-Fields Church.

1867 – More events that are important have taken place in Canada on July 1 than on any other day of the year, but Confederation Day, 1867, will always retain first place. This was Canada’s birthday, although Canada then included only Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.
Most nations were born of adversity, unhappy occasions, often due to war. Canada was born of diversity, a curious blending of races, geography, and economics.

For the most part, her birthday was a happy occasion. In Ottawa, church bells began ringing after midnight, June 30. There was also a 101-gun salute, while 21-gun salutes were fired in other centres. In Saint John and Halifax, however, a number of merchants were so opposed to Confederation that they draped their stores in crêpe!

There was a drab ceremony in the Privy Council chamber, where Chief Justice Draper swore in Lord Monck as governor-general. After the cabinet ministers had taken their oaths of office, Lord Monck, who hated pomp as much as Macdonald loved it, announced that Queen Victoria had made John A. Macdonald a Knight Commander of the Bath, which meant they would have no titles. This was a mistake. Cartier and Galt were so angry that they refused the decorations. Later, however, they were made baronets.

W. G. Hardy in From Sea Unto Sea has summed up the rest of the day beautifully. He wrote:

“The official part of the ceremonies was completed by midday. Then, across the Dominion, but more particularly, in what had been the province of Canada, the people went on holiday. In Canada East, renamed Quebec, it was flags and bunting and family parties, and a cricket game at Trois Rivières. Canada West, which had now become Ontario, favoured brass bands, regattas, races, and the like. In the more remote centres, the farmers gathered in the local fairgrounds or picnic places for a program of sports and a country supper of salads, cold meats, pies, and cakes, at tables set up on trestles under the trees. As the soft July night floated down, the villages, towns and cities were bright with Chinese lanterns on the porches and with fireworks and illuminations. The people, the inchoate mass without an articulate voice, sensed that something of significance had occurred!”
1870 – An Order-in-Council authorized a railway to be built to the Pacific if British Columbia joined Confederation.
1873 – Union Station, located at the foot of Simcoe St in Toronto, was opened, replacing the original station built in 1858. The second station would, in turn, be replaced by a third Union Station – the one now standing – in 1927.
1873 – Prince Edward Island joined Confederation.
1884 – The Methodist Church formally amalgamated with the Primitive Methodist Church in Canada, the Bible Christina Church of Canada, and the Methodist Episcopal Church in Canada to form the largest Protestant body in the country.
1912 – George Golding of Toronto won the gold medal in the 10,000-metre walk at the Stockholm Olympics.
1916 – Newfoundland troops took Beaumont Hamel in France.
1927 – Canada celebrated its Diamond Jubilee of Confederation.
1927 – Direct communication was established between governments of Canada and Britain without going through the governor-general.
1941 – The Unemployment Insurance Act came into force.
1955 – London, Ontario, held its centennial celebration.
1962 – Medicare came into force in Saskatchewan.


July 2

1578 – Martin Frobisher discovered Hudson Strait.
1603 – Champlain reached the rapids that later became known as “Lachine.”
1671 – Jacques Marquette, probably the most renowned of all Jesuit missionary explorers, took his final vows at Sault Ste Marie.
1679 – Dulhut (after whom Duluth it is named) claimed the Red River area for France.
1851 – Lord Elgin laid the cornerstone of the Ottawa Normal School.
1859 – John A. Macdonald and colleagues were nearly drowned in Georgian Bay.
1885 – Northwest Rebellion ended with the capture of Big Bear.
1927 – The Ferguson Highway, a 419-km trunk road between Cochrane and North Bay, was officially opened at Temagami. It was named in honour of Premier Howard Ferguson.
1955 – Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, celebrated its centennial.
1959 – Canada and Japan signed a pact concerning the use of atomic energy.
1963 – Canada rushed 50,000 doses of polio vaccine to Barbados.


July 3

1608 – It was de Monts who fitted out the expedition that was responsible for the founding of Quebec on July 3, 1608. There were three ships: one went to Port Royal to revive the original community, while Champlain took the other two to Quebec. On the way up the St. Lawrence, they had to fight their way past Basque traders at Tadoussac.
1717 – The building of the fortress of Louisbourg began.
1754 – George Washington, then a British officer, attacked a French force at Fort Necessity and was forced to retreat.
1770 – The first ordination of a Presbyterian minister in Canada took place at Halifax.
1797 – The Law Society of Upper Canada was established by a statute.
1814 – Fort Erie, Ontario, was captured by an American force.
1838 – Francis Hincks found the Toronto Examiner.
1876 – The Intercolonial Railway was completed between Halifax and Rivière du Loup.


July 4

1609 – Champlain discovered Lake Champlain in New York.
1634 – Trois Rivières, Quebec, was founded by a fur trader named La Violette who was later flogged for selling liquor to the Natives.
1793 – Alexander Mackenzie left his canoe on the Blackwater River and began walking to the Pacific.
1865 – An American consul read the Declaration of Independence at Cordova Bay, near Victoria, British Columbia.
1873 – The Montreal Herald published letters leading to the resignation of Sir John A. Macdonald.
1886 – The first C.P.R. transcontinental train arrived at Port Moody, near Vancouver. It left Montreal on June 28.
1892 – Painter Kenneth Forbes born in Toronto.
1893 – A tug-of-war team from Zorra were proclaimed world champions at the Chicago World Fair.
1910 – The west yard of the Gillies Brothers mill at Braeside burned with a loss of nearly 30 million board feet of lumber.
1945 – Canadians entered Berlin as part of a garrison force.


July 5

1687 – A flotilla carrying 3,000 troops and Indians, under the command of Governor Jacques-René Brisay de Denonville, burned Seneca villages on the south shore of Lake Ontario and then stopped at Ganotsekwyayon, near present-day Scarborough.
1812 – American General Hull arrived at Detroit to invade Canada with 2,500 men.
1814 – American forces were victorious at Chippewa, near Niagara Falls.
1837 – A general militia order caused riots in Lower Canada.
1866 – The first steam engine operated in Prince Edward Island.
1879 – Lieutenant-Governor Letellier de St. Just was removed from office by the Federal Government.
1913 – Vilhjalmur Stefansson left Seattle to spend five years in the Arctic for the Canadian Government.
1958 – The Stephen Leacock Memorial Home was opened at Orillia, Ontario.
1970 – Trailing black smoke and flames, and with two of its engines missing, an Air Canada DC 8 Jet crashed 11 km from Toronto International Airport, killing 109 people.


July 6

1669 – La Salle began a journey from Montreal to Niagara; he arrived on September 15.
1795 – The Upper Canada Parliament opened a session that passed laws concerning medicine, the Supreme Court, and customs agreement with Lower Canada.
1858 – A. T. Galt advocated union of the British North American colonies.
1862 – The British Government approved in principle the union of British North America.
1892 – A great fire at St. John’s, Newfoundland, left 10,000 people homeless.
1896 – Quebec was extended to Hudson Bay, thus adding 488,083 square km (188,450 square miles) to its area.
1904 – Lou Scholes of Toronto became the first Canadian to win the Diamond Sculls at Henley-on-Thames in England.
1906 – Parliament passed the Lord’s Day Act after a bitter debate.
1907 – The Kirkfield Lift Locks, near Peterborough, with a rise of fifteen metres and a number of minor locks, dams and swing bridges extending over twenty-one km, was officially opened.
1921 – A disastrous fire, beginning at 4 a.m. in the Robert Stewart Lumber Company on Upper Wyndham St, struck Guelph.
1961 – Robert N. Thompson was elected President of the Social Credit Party.


July 7

1613 – Sir Thomas Button named the Nelson River, on Hudson Bay.
1620 – Champlain began Fort St. Louis on the present site of the Chateau Frontenac Hotel, Quebec.
1787 – It was probably on July 7, 1787, that the first white woman arrived in what is now British Columbia. She was the seventeen-year-old bride of Captain Charles Barkley of the 400-ton Imperial Eagle, a British ship operating under an Austrian flag.
1821 – Lower Canada took over the building of the Lachine Canal from a private company and began construction on July 17.
1844 – St Mark’s Church, Barriefield, was opened by Anglican Archdeacon George Okill Stuart.
1870 – The British Columbia Government was notified that terms for Confederation had been accepted in Ottawa.
1871 – Thirteen rafts of 1,173 cribs, containing 51,173 cubic metres of timber, began running through the Chaudière log-slide at Ottawa.
1895 – There was a cabinet crisis in Ottawa over the Manitoba separate schools Question.

July 8

1760 – Captain John Byron defeated a French fleet in the Bay of Chaleur.
1874 – The Royal Northwest Mounted Police began their march from Manitoba to Fort Whoop-Up, near Calgary.
1876 – Royal Northwest Mounted Police Inspector Denny held a conference with the Blackfoot Chiefs concerning a proposition from Sitting Bull to join in the war against whites in Canada and the United States.
1899 – A streetcar strike in London, Ontario, made it necessary to call out troops to quell riots.
1903 – An Ontario government order-in-council named Alexander Fraser, former editor of the Toronto Mail and Empire, to the new post of the provincial archivist.
1907 – The Cobalt Miners Union, disputing the introduction of a uniform pay scale, organized the first strike in Ontario mining history.
1913 – Louis Hémon, whose classic novel Maria Chapdelaine about rural French Canada sold in excess of a million copies, was struck and killed at age 33 by a C.P.R. train just west of Chapleau.
1917 – Artist Tom Thomson drowned in Canoe Lake, Algonquin Park.
1937 – The Imperial Airways flying boat Caledonia arrived at Montreal from Southampton, England. It was the inauguration of an experimental phase of transatlantic flying.
1958 – President Eisenhower was in Ottawa for defence discussions.

July 9

1706 – Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville died at Havana, Cuba.
1792 – John Graves Simcoe swore in members of Upper Canada’s first Executive Council.
1793 – Upper Canada prohibited the importation of slaves.
1827 – After emigrating from England to Venezuela in 1825, 150 destitute and homeless settlers (58 under 13 years of age) arrived in Guelph via New York, having found the climate, soil and political conditions of South America inhospitable.
1811 – David Thompson claimed the area at the junction of the Snake and Columbia Rivers for Britain.
1825 – Fort Douglas on the Red River was sold to Robert Logan for £400.
1843 – Prince Albert, the first iron steamer built in Canada, was launched at Montreal.
1852 – A fire in the east end of Montreal destroyed 1,100 homes.
1904 – The Peterborough Lift Lock was opened. It remained for years the largest of its kind anywhere in the world.
1918 – The second airmail flight was flown by Katherine Stinson from Calgary to Edmonton.
1936 – The most intense heat wave on record occurred in Ontario – the temperature in Toronto reached 40.6 ºC.
1944 – British and Canadian troops launched an attack on Caen, which became important after the opening of the Second Front in Europe.
1969 – The federal government’s Official Languages Act became law.

July 10

1869 – Prospectors headed by Montreal mining engineer Thomas McFarlane and John Morgan discovered a rich vein of Galena near Prince Arthur’s Landing on Lake Superior. The site, a twenty-seven-metres-wide rock slab, was later to become the world-famous Silver Islet silver mine.
1920 – Sir Robert Borden resigned an office he had held since 1911. Arthur Meighen succeeded him.
1920 – New Brunswick voted for total prohibition.
1943 – A Canadian army invaded Sicily.
1946 – Canada’s first drive-in-theatre – The Skyway – opened in Stoney Creek near Hamilton.
1951 – Canada ended the state of war with Germany by royal proclamation.
1958 – The Canada-United States Joint Committee was established for defence.
1960– Roger Woodward, age seven, survived a 50.90 meters (167-foot) drop over Niagara Falls.
1963 – The Federal and British Columbia Governments agreed on a Columbia River Power Treaty.

July 11

1808 – At Fort Amherstburg, a band of more than 1,000 Indians gathered to hear the lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, Francis Gore, cautiously extend the hand of British friendship, and ask for their support in the event of future war.
1814 – A British force from Nova Scotia captured Eastport, Maine.
1865 – A convention at Detroit favoured continued reciprocity with Canada. Joseph Howe was one of the speakers.
1872 – Canada asked the British Foreign Office to take up the Alaskan Boundary question with the United States.
1884 – Louis Riel arrived in Canada to lead the Northwest Rebellion.
1896 – Sir Wilfrid Laurier became prime minister and was in office until October 6, 1911.
1960 – The Northwest Territories Council was convened at Resolute Bay. It was the most northerly meeting of any legislative body in the world.

July 12

1673 – Frontenac landed at Cataraqui with 120 canoes.
1744 – Natives, incited by Father Le Loutre, attacked Annapolis Royal.
1759 – Wolfe bombarded Quebec and repulsed a counter-attack.
1776 – Captain Cook sailed from Plymouth on a voyage to Vancouver Island.
1812 – When the United States of America declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812, the objective was to “liberate” Canada.
1817 – Two scions of the local establishment, John Ridout and Samuel Peters Jarvis, fought a duel in a meadow northwest of the corner of Yong and College streets, Toronto. Ridout, eighteen years old, was killed.
1822 – Captain Parry sailed north to discover Fury and Hecla Straits.
1849 – Twelve people were killed in a riot between the Orangemen and Roman Catholics in Saint John, New Brunswick.
1849 – Sir William Osler, physician and author, was born at Bond Head, Simcoe County.
1855 – Edward “Ned” Hanlan, famous sculler, was born in Toronto. He held the rowing title for 6 years before losing in 1884 and lost only 6 races out of more than 350.
1877 – Rioting broke out between the Orangemen and Roman Catholics in Montreal.
1950 – Canadian destroyers arrived at Pearl Harbor en route to Korea.
1952 – Canada and Ceylon agreed to plan economic aid under the Colombo Plan.
1958 – Princess Margaret toured Canada until August 11.
1961 – Author Mazo de la Roche died in Toronto at the age of eighty-two.
1963 – A dynamite explosion destroyed Queen Victoria’s monument at Montreal.

July 13

1620 – The Caen Brothers, Huguenots, formed a company to develop Canada.
1789 – A British ship, Princess Royal, was seized by Spaniards at Nootka, British Columbia.
1865 – A large wooden conduit into the Ottawa River, designed to supply government buildings on Parliament Hill with water, was completed.
1922 – Canada and the United States discussed the continuing of the Rush-Bagot Treaty prohibiting armaments on the Great Lakes.
1941 – Canada approved the Anglo-Soviet Treaty. (Germany had attacked Russia on June 22).
1949 – The first Legislature of Newfoundland as a province of Canada was opened.
1953 – The Shakespearian Festival at Stratford, Ontario, opened its first “glorious summer” with Alec Guinness in the role of Richard III. It is growing stronger every year.
1961 – The Right Honourable Duncan Sandys met the government at Ottawa to discuss Britain’s proposed membership in the European Common Market.

July 14

1643 – Charles La Tour sailed from Boston to attack Charnisay, his rival for Nova Scotia.
1696 – Iberville and Bonaventure captured the British ship Newport near St. John’s, Newfoundland.
1760 – General Murray left Quebec with 2,500 troops to attack Montreal.
1789 – Alexander Mackenzie reached the Arctic Ocean the same day as the fall of the Bastille.
1812 – The justices of the peace in York, determined to maintain respectability in the town, forbade public bathing in Lake Ontario between sunrise and sunset.
1896 – Arthur Sturgis Hardy succeeded Oliver Mowat as the fourth premier of Ontario.
1903 – An agreement was reached between the federal government and the Indian Councils whereby the Mississauga secured “for all times, in settlement of a dispute of many years standing, the right of undisturbed use and occupancy of the lands on the Six Nations Reserve” occupied by the New Credit band.
1915 – Sir Robert Borden was the first Dominion Prime Minister to attend a British cabinet meeting.
1940 – A. G. L. McNaughton was made lieutenant general and placed in command of a British corps as well as Canadian troops in Britain.

July 15

1710 – A British force attacked Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
1867 – Ontario’s first government, a coalition government led by John Sandfield Macdonald, a Catholic liberal from Glengarry, was sworn in.
1870 – Manitoba became the fifth Canadian province.
1870 – A royal proclamation stated that all territory between Ontario and British Columbia belonged to Canada.
1882 – In Toronto, Major Thomas Moore founded the first corps of the Salvation Army in Canada.
1889 – The C.P.R. was given a contract by Britain to carry mail from Halifax or Quebec to Hong Kong.
1896 – The Canadian yacht Glencairn won an international race.
1929 – Invented in Toronto by Thomas Carroll, the combine harvester was given its first successful test in a farmer’s field near Sarnia.
1930 – The Federal Government allowed Manitoba to control its own natural resources.
1983 – The federal cabinet approved plans to test American cruise missiles in Canada, beginning in 1984.

July 16

1647 – Lake St. John, Quebec, was discovered by Father de Quen.
1783 – Royal grants of land were given to the United Empire Loyalists.
1792 – The Executive Council, meeting in Kingston, issued one proclamation dividing the colony into nineteen counties extending from Glengarry in the east of Essex in the west, and a second ordering that elections be held in these counties.
1885 – Lord Revelstoke saved the C.P.R. financially. The mountain and community in British Columbia are named after him.
1886 – On this day in 1886, Sir John and Lady Macdonald were crossing Canada on the new C.P.R. transcontinental. It was the first time the great architect of Canada had been west of Ontario.
1907 – Three buildings collapsed in London, causing seven deaths.
1923 – The Conservative government of Howard Ferguson was sworn into office.
1925 – Saskatchewan voted for government control of liquor, repealing the Prohibition Act of 1916.
1965 – Lucien Rivard was arrested more than four months after escaping from Bordeaux Prison.
1975 – Fire ravaged the old Bell Organ factory (founded in 1864 and employing 450 people) in Guelph.

July 17

1673 – The Dutch attacked Ferryland, Newfoundland.
1673 – The second census of Canada showed the population as 6,705. It grew to 17,125 by 1706.
1777 – Fort Mackinac surrendered to the British.
1817 – The first sod for the Lachine Canal was turned.
1874 – Lord Carnarvon offered to mediate the dispute between the Federal Government and British Columbia.
1898 – The Montreal and Atlantic Railway Company completed trackage between Ottawa and Montreal.
1909 – The Juvenile Delinquent Act came into force.
1914 – The town of Hearst, with a population of 1,000, was almost totally destroyed by fire.
1959 – An Emergency Measures Organization was formed to deal with an atomic attack.

July 18

1628 – David Kirke captured French supply ships in the St. Lawrence.
1739 – A census of Canada showed a population of 42,701.
1817 – The first treaty with western Natives was made by the Earl of Selkirk on behalf of King George III.
1853 – The Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railroad started operating between Toronto and Brantford.
1905 – The Dominion Act created the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan; it was to take effect on September 1.
1910 – Grand Trunk Railway employees went on strike until August 2. They received a 15 per cent wage increase.
1913 – The immigration of Sikhs from India caused riots in Vancouver.
1921 – United Farmers won an election in Alberta.
1929 – A plebiscite in Prince Edward Island upheld prohibition.
1932 – Canada and the United States signed an agreement to build the St. Lawrence Seaway. It was not opened until 1959.
1959 – The Federal Government placed oil, gas, and international electric power under a National Energy Board.

July 19

1695 – The first sawmill in New Brunswick was built at the mouth of the Nashwaak River.
1701 – The Iroquois deeded hunting grounds north of Lake Ontario and west of Lake Michigan to England.
1817 – Selkirk settlers returned to the Red River after being driven out by the Northwest Company.
1846 – Toronto received news that had been sent by telegraph from New York to Buffalo, and then by steamer to Toronto.
1875 – The Parliament of Canada Act defined the powers and privileges of its members.
1886 – Captain Scott was fined at Digby, Nova Scotia, for seizing an American fishing vessel. The fishing agreement with the States had ended July 1, but the Americans were allowed to continue fishing until the end of the season.
1921 – Prohibition came into effect in Ontario with Bill 26 banning the importation of liquor into the province, while the Sandy Bill disallowed the commercial movement of alcohol within the province.
1929 – Burning of S.S. John Hanlan at Sunnyside, Toronto.
1958 – Prime Minister Nkrumah of Ghana visited Ottawa and addressed a joint session of Parliament.
1963 – The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was appointed.

July 20

1784 – One of the earliest settlers in the Hamilton area, Robert Land, whose death sentence in New York for being a British spy had been overturned by George Washington, erected a dwelling at what is now the corner of Barton and Leeming Streets.
1799 – The first edition of the Canada Constellation, Upper Canada’s earliest independent newspaper, was published at Newark by Gideon and Silvester Tiffany.
1871 – Canada from sea unto sea became a reality on July 20, 1871, when British Columbia entered Confederation. The extension was not achieved easily and Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland were yet to come. Alberta and Saskatchewan were in Confederation, but as Northwest Territories, they did not become separate provinces until 1905.
1877 – The University of Manitoba was established.
1883 – The first rail for the Pacific section of the C.P.R. was laid at Port Moody, British Columbia.
1885 – The trial of Louis Riel began at Regina, Saskatchewan. He was sentenced September 18.
1919 – The warmest temperature ever recorded in Ontario – 42.2 ºC at Biscotasing.
1945 – The first family allowance cheques were sent to Canadian mothers.
1963 – Scientists gathered in Canada to study the eclipse of the sun.
1965 – Prime Minister Lester Pearson outlined a Medicare plan to provincial premiers in Ottawa.

July 21

1667 – France regained Acadia through the Treaty of Breda.
1730 – The population was estimated at 33,682.
1759 – Colonel Guy Carleton led an expedition 33 km (21 miles) up the St. Lawrence during Wolfe’s attack on Quebec.
1796 – Having been granted a leave of absence because of ill health, John Graves Simcoe, accompanied by this family, and left York on board the Onondaga for Quebec and England. He never returned to Upper Canada.
1814 – An American force of 150 soldiers and sailors attacked an undefended North-West Company depot at Sault Ste Marie, razed the sawmill, dwellings and stables, and destroyed the bateau locks.
1836 – The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railway opened, connecting Laprairie on the St. Lawrence with St. John’s, Quebec, on the Richelieu River. The railway was horse-drawn for the first year and was the only passenger railway in Canada until 1848.
1870 – The Ottawa City Passenger Railway Company began transportation service with horse-drawn streetcars between the capital and New Edinburgh.
1889 – A new suspension bridge over the Niagara River between Queenston and Lewiston was opened.
1922 – A train wreck at Hornepayne was caused by a moose on the tracks.
1932 – An imperial conference opened in Ottawa with Prime Minister R. B. Bennett as host.
1936 – Mount Waddington in British Columbia, 20,921 metres (13,200 feet), was climbed for the first time.
1961 – Prime Minister Diefenbaker opened the government-built town of Inuvik in the Arctic.

July 22

1635 – Champlain held a council with the Indians at Quebec. He died later that year.
1793 – Alexander Mackenzie painted a message on a large rock at Bella Coola, British Columbia “Alexander Mackenzie, from Canada, by land, the twenty-second of July, one thousand, and seven hundred and ninety-three.”
1812 – General Brock issued a proclamation countering the one issued by General Hull on July 12.
1820 – Birthdate in Kingston of Oliver Mowat, later to be Ontario’s premier for twenty-four years.
1847 – On this day, the Imperial Act gave Canada control of taxation.
1884 – The boundaries of Ontario were defined by the Imperial Privy Council.
1892 – The steel-hulled steamer Arabian, 54.9 metres, 1,219 tonnes, was launched – the largest ship to that date in Ontario.
1915 – Sir Sandford Fleming, an engineer and railroad builder, died on this day. He also created the system of “standard time.”
1944 – The Royal Canadian Mounted Police patrol boat St. Roch left the city of Halifax for Vancouver via the Northwest Passage. The trip took 86 days to complete.

July 23

1627 – Lord Baltimore brought colonists to Ferryland, Newfoundland.
1629 – William Alexander granted part of Acadia (now known as Nova Scotia) to Charles La Tour and his son.
1689 – Father Sebastian Râle was sent on a mission to the Abenaki Indians.
1840 – The Act of Union based on the Durham report, united Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. It went into effect on February 10, 1841.
1892 – Manitoba voted for prohibition. It was not put into effect.
1908 – At the Olympics in London, England, Bobby Kerr of Hamilton won the gold medal in the 220-yard sprint.
1927 – Edward, Prince of Wales, Prince George, and Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin sailed for Canada on the Empress of Australia.
1944 – The Canadian Army began operations in Normandy as a separate force.
1952 – The International Red Cross opened its conference in Toronto.

July 24

1534 – Jacques Cartier planted a cross at Gaspé, Quebec.
1759 – The French garrison of Fort Niagara, under the command of Pierre Pouchot, fell to British and Native attackers under the command of Sir William Johnson.
1762 – St. John’s, Newfoundland, was taken by the French under De Ternay. The British, led by Lord Colville, on September 18, recaptured it.
1788 – Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester), issued a proclamation dividing the western part of Quebec (prior to its division into Upper and Lower Canada) into four districts to be known as  Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nassau, and Hesse.
1790 – Spain agreed to pay reparation for the British ships seized at Nootka, British Columbia.
1819 – Following gallant conduct in the War of 1812, particularly in the Battle of Lundy’s Lane where he was severely wounded, Captain John LeBreton received a land grant in Bytown consisting of lot 9 in the first concession and concession A on the Ottawa River at present-day Brittania.
1848 – James Ferrier, the first locomotive imported from Britain, was used on the Montreal-Lachine (Quebec) railway.
1860 – The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) arrived in Newfoundland. He continued to Halifax, Nova Scotia on July 30; Saint John on August 2; Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island on August 9; and Quebec City, Quebec on August 18.
1933 – The World’s Grain Exhibition was held in Regina, Saskatchewan.
1967 – President Charles de Gaulle of France delivered “Quebec Libre” speech in Montreal, Quebec. Two days later, he cancelled his official visit to Ottawa and returned to France.

July 25

1680 – Dulhut rescued Father Hennepin from the Sioux Indians.
1686 – Fort Albany, on Hudson Bay, surrendered to Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville after a siege.
1715 – Acadians appeared again before the Council of Nova Scotia in Halifax, and refused to take the oath of allegiance. Their deportation followed later in the year.
1759 – Wolfe issued a warning to Canadians in Quebec to keep out of any fighting.
1787 – British navigator Capt. George Dixon named the Queen Charlotte Islands after the wife of George III.
1814 – At Lundy’s Lane, near Niagara Falls, the bloodiest battle of the War of 1812 was fought. During a six-hour afternoon encounter, Lieutenant-General Gordon Drummond with 2,800 men engaged an invading American army that had recently been victorious at Chippawa. Each force lost more than 800 men and both sides claimed victory. The Americans, however, withdrew the following day, ending their offensive in Upper Canada.
1871 – Anthony Musgrave left British Columbia. He was the last colonial governor.
1905 – James Walsh, who had served as a North-West Mounted Police superintendent in the Yukon at the height of the Klondike gold rush, died at his Brockville home.
1917 – Finance Minister Sir Thomas White introduced income tax legislation as a “temporary war-time measure.”
1937 – Sir Charles Edward Sounders, the discoverer of Marquis Wheat, died in Toronto at the age of seventy.
1956 – The Prime Minister of Australia, the Right Honourable R. G. Menzies, and his wife were guests of Canada up until July 29.
1958 – An agreement was signed to develop the South Saskatchewan River.

July 26

1664 – The Sovereign Council fixed prices of commodities.
1757 – Montcalm defeated the British at Lake George, New York.
1811 – Selkirk Colonists led by Miles Macdonell sailed from Scotland for the Red River. They arrived in August the following year.
1845 – English explorer Sir John Franklin disappears on an expedition in the eastern Arctic. A crew of whalers on Baffin Bay were the last to see him. It was later learned that Franklin’s ships were frozen in, west of King William Island.
1852 – The first Toronto Stock Exchange was established by a group of twelve businessmen.
1874 – At the home of his father in Brantford, Alexander Graham Bell disclosed for the first time his concept of communication by telephone.
1923 – President Harding of the United States visited Vancouver. He was the first American President to visit Canada during his term in office. Harding died a week later of a stroke.
1936 – Edward VIII, the late Duke of Windsor, unveiled the Vimy Memorial. It memorizes Canadians who successfully took the high ridge. Three thousand five hundred and ninety-eight soldiers were killed and seven thousand and four were injured.
1953 – An armistice was signed in the war in Korea.

July 27

1758 – Louisbourg fell to Amherst and Wolfe.
1812 – The Parliament of Upper Canada met until August 5th and passed laws for defence.
1853 – The Grand Trunk Railway was completed from Sherbrooke, Quebec to the American border.
1891 – A railway between Calgary and Edmonton was completed.
1987 – Toronto experienced its greatest one-day rainfall ever: 98.6 mm
1898 – The first locomotive operated on the White Pass and Yukon Railway.
1921 – A thunderstorm broke out across the Maritimes. The storm featured many flashes of vivid lightning. One particular bolt of lightning entered a house at Ferguson’s Cove, Nova Scotia, and carried away the slats of the owner’s bed! The occupant was uninjured but quite understandably, shaken up!
1927 – The World Poultry Congress was held in Ottawa. The conference lasted until August 4th.
1940 – Billboard Magazine publishes its first singles records chart. The top song is “I’ll Never Smile Again” by Tommy Dorsey, written by Canadian Ruth Lowe after the death of her first husband. It stays in the number one spot for 12 weeks.
1957 – American Secretary of State John Foster Dulles arrived in Ottawa for talks with Prime Minister Diefenbaker and members of the Government.
1960 – Canadian army units are formed for service in the Congo on behalf of the United Nations. The Blue Berets depart for Africa in August.
1996 – Rowers Marnie McBean of Toronto and Kathleen Heddle of Vancouver become the first Canadians to win three Olympic gold medals. Later that same day, sprinter Donovan Bailey of Oakville, Ont. wins the men’s 100 metres in world-record time.

July 28

1755 – The Council of Nova Scotia made a decision to deport the Acadians.
1819 – Richard John Uniacke was tried for murder as the result of a duel. His father who was Attorney-General of Nova Scotia led him into court.
1847 – Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick Railroads were incorporated.
1858 – The Macdonald-Cartier government was defeated on the motion that Ottawa would not be the capital of Canada.
1914 – The Montreal (Quebec) and Toronto (Ontario) stock exchanges closed for three months. The export of vital materials was prohibited, except to Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and the United States.
1930 – The general election resulted in a victory for the federal Conservatives under R. B. Bennett.
1936 – Russ Jackson, the Ottawa Rough Rider quarterback who guided his team to the Grey Cup four times, born in Hamilton.

July 29

1704 – A New England force under Benjamin Church attacked Beaubassin and Grand Pre in Acadia.
1813 – In the morning, a U.S. fleet appeared off York and landed unopposed. York’s militia had been placed on “parole” following the first American invasion in April, and there were no regular troops in the town.
1848 – The last plank was laid on the Niagara Suspension Bridge.
1895 – The Territorial Exhibition opened in Regina.
1911 – The Canadian Northern Railway was completed between Montreal (Quebec) and Port Arthur (Ontario).
1912 – The Imperial Privy Council upheld authority to make marriage laws. The Roman Catholic Church had declared marriage laws invalid in 1907.
1916 – Fires, which had been burning for some weeks around settlers’ clearings along the line of the Timiskaming and Northern Railway, were united by strong winds into one huge conflagration burning on a sixty-five-km front. An estimated 223 lives were lost and the settlements of Porquis Junction, Iroquois Falls, Kelso, Nuskha, Matheson and Ramore were largely destroyed.
1938 – Born on this day was Peter Jennings, TV anchor, in Toronto. He died in 2005.
1965 – A seven-day postal strike ended in most cities.
1971 – It is the most easily recognized ship in Canada but until a few days before there was talk that it would be scrapped. Fortunately, the Bluenose II, built from the same plans as the famous racing schooner Bluenose, has found a new owner, the government of Nova Scotia. Rather than sell the celebrated ship to foreign interests, the Oland family sells the ship to the province for the remarkable price of one Canadian dollar. (Alternatively, more fittingly, ten dimes!).

July 30

1609 – Samuel de Champlain helped the Hurons and Algonquins attack the Iroquois near Crown Point.
1711 – Sir Hovenden Walker sailed from Nantucket to capture Canada. This was one of the biggest fiascos in Canadian history.
1865 – Sir Étienne Taché died. He formed a government with Sir John A. Macdonald during negotiations for Confederation.
1886 – The first tea train left Vancouver (British Columbia) for Montreal (Quebec).
1898 – The Imperial Privy Council upheld the right of Manitoba to abolish separate schools.
1900 – Japan prohibited Immigration to Canada.
1927 – The Prince of Wales, Prince George, and Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin arrived in Quebec on a tour of Canada.
1941 – Born on this day was our own singer and songwriter, Paul Anka, in Ottawa, Ontario.
1954 – Field Marshal Alexander, former governor-general, opened the British Empire Games in Vancouver.
1962 – Britain agreed on this day to purchase 24 million pounds of uranium from Canada.
1962 – The official opening of the 7,825km TransCanada Highway, of which about 2,339 km are within Ontario, occurred at the halfway point on Chippewa River, 61 km north of Sault Ste Marie.
1971 – Born on this day was Tom Green, Actor, and TV host, in Pembroke, Ontario.
1992 – Death of Toronto-born artist Joe Shuster. He is known for working with writer Jerry Siegal in creating Superman.

July 31

1687 – Fort Niagara was built by Denonville at the mouth of the Niagara River.
1759 – Wolfe attacked Quebec, but was repulsed.
1763 – Pontiac defeated the British at Bloody Run.
1837 – A meeting at Quebec formed a “Committee of Vigilance” with W. L. Mackenzie, the representative for Upper Canada. It proposed to form provisional governments in both provinces.
1867 – Fort Niagara was built by Governor Jacques Renéde Brisay de Denonville at the mouth of the Niagara River.
1868 – The Imperial Parliament passed the Rupert’s Land Act authorizing Canada to acquire the Northwest Territories.
1874 – The first party of Mennonites arrived at Quebec and settled in Manitoba.
1895 – A ceremony marked the paving of Ottawa’s Sparks St – the first asphalt laid down in the capital.
1907 – A plant to develop electric power from coal was opened in Maccan, Nova Scotia. Famous inventor Thomas Edison, who was a member of a family from Digby, Nova Scotia, was one of the founders.
1913 – Alys McKey Bryant made the first solo flight by a woman in Canada in Vancouver racetrack. (The first woman in Canada to get a pilot’s licence was Eileen Vollick of Hamilton, Ontario in 1928).
1955 – At seventeen, Marilyn Bell of Toronto became the youngest person to swim the English Channel – in fourteen-and-a-half hours.
1957 – DEW (Distant Early Warning) radar line went into operation.
1989 – Launch of CBC Newsworld, Canada’s first cable news channel, encounters some stumbles and successes in its debut.

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